Safari Hat Primer

Safari Hat Primer

These days, hats are no long considered “costume de rigueur” for gentlemen, but it wasn’t so long ago when any man worth his salt wouldn’t be caught outdoors without one. Hats, not unlike shoes or any other item of menswear, first evolved from purely functional pieces and then made the familiar journey into everyday wear with its own particular rules or conventions. However, hats had one unique use in contrast to the others – they also were used to distinguish the wearer in terms of status, occupation and even political affiliation.

The Safari Hat is no exception. Also known as the Pith Helmet or the Sola, this hat originated in tropical British colonies as part of the military uniform. It has evolved significantly in the last 200 years, and now the Safari Hat is most frequently worn as a sun hat on — you guessed it — safari or in other hot climates.

Let’s take a quick look at the intriguing history of the Safari Hat.

Evolution of the Safari Hat

The Pith helmet or Sola Topee was first made in the Indian subcontinent sometime in the 1800s. It got its name from the fact that it was made out of the pith, the soft tissue found inside of the trunk of the Sola tree, a species native to India. Apart from being made out of pith, its other features included peaks (small brims) in the front and rear to provide shade from the sun, a cloth covering (initially white), holes for ventilation, and a chin strap to hold it firmly in place.

Sola Pith Plant

Sola Pith Plant

By 1870, the Sola Topee came to be used by various European militaries (though it eventually became synonymous with the British) in their tropical colonies including Africa and India. These military-issue Sola Topees were often decorated with plumes and spikes. The first major change occurred during the Anglo – Zulu war, when British soldiers found that the white cloth covering of their helmets made them rather conspicuous targets. They started staining them with tea. The resulting khaki-colored helmets then became standard issue.


Pith Helmet with Colonial Military Uniform

Pith Helmet with Colonial Military Uniform


By the 1930s, the Sola Topee made its transition into civilian life as a sun hat. European powers took the dangers of the sun very seriously in their colonies, and the hat was very often worn indoors in case the sun was able to penetrate the roof, such was their paranoia. The civilian Sola Topee differed from the military design in that it had a full round brim sloping gently downwards and running all across the helmet, whereas the military style was more conical in shape. The military spike gave way to a round button-like shape with four holes where it met the crown for better ventilation. A cloth headband, ventilation holes, and a chin strap were retained from the military design, although the chin strap was typically looped over the front of the brim.

The Prince of Wales wears a Pith Helmet in 1921

The Prince of Wales (center) wears a Pith Helmet in 1921

Both khaki and white colors were available to civilians. An optional part was a ‘neck curtain’ made of fabric hanging from the back of the helmet to provide additional protection for the back of the neck. The Sola Topee was the headgear of choice when outdoors and especially while on safari in both India and Africa.

The Sola Topee also made its way to the Americas where it was used widely in the subtropics. Teddy Roosevelt was probably the Pith Helmet’s most famous American ambassador, and he is often pictured wearing one on safari and during his military campaigns.

Teddy Roosevelt in a Pith Helmet

Teddy Roosevelt in a Pith Helmet

Slowly over time the Sola Topee began to be made out of cork rather than pith, but apart from that the design has remained unchanged until the present day. It was also retained by the militaries up to the end of the Second World War. This was not restricted only to the British; the Afrika Korps had their own version, as did the French in Vietnam.

Over time the Pith Helmet was replaced by the slouch hat in colonial Africa. The slouch hat is a wide-brimmed felt hat with one side of the brim pinned to the crown. During the time of the Boer War there was a shortage of Sola Topees and the slouch hat was adopted by the British Army. It is probably due to this shortage that the slouch hat began to replace the Sola topee even in civilian life in Africa. Very often the brim of the civilian version would not be pinned to the crown.

Even though the slouch hat in different variations has been worn by many nations across the globe, it was most notably adopted in Australia. Worn by the Australian military since the late 1800s, it’s still part of the modern military uniform.

Slouch Hat

Slouch Hat

The 1940s and 1950s were the heydays of the African safari and by then the slouch hat had completely replaced the Sola Topee and had become de rigeur. However, the professional hunters of Africa decided that they could do with a bit of Italian flair and started wearing, almost as a uniform, felt hats made by the Italian firm of Borsalino. Very soon their wealthy clients started copying them and a new trend was started. Borsalino was well known as a manufacturer of felt fedoras but very soon their Safari Hat also achieved cult status. The Borsalino safari hat is even credited with saving the life of a professional hunter named Stan Lawrence Brown during an elephant attack! Borsalino continues to make the safari hat today.

Borsalino Safari Hat

Borsalino Safari Hat

How To Wear a Safari Hat

Since the safari hat is no longer a mainstream hat, it’s not as easy to wear relative to a fedora, for example. Combined incorrectly, a safari hat can give an outfit an unintentional cartoonish look since it makes a serious statement. However, in the right circumstances, here are a few tips on how to wear a safari hat with panache:

  • A safari hat is intended to be worn as a hot-weather accessory, so wear it on hot days when sun protection is a must and you will be out of doors for the majority of the day. This, of course, includes safaris, desert destinations, and hot tropical locations.
  • Pair a safari hat with other active warm weather clothes, such as shorts and safari khakis, or if you are so bold, pair it with summer blazers and linen.
  • Treat each style of safari hat differently — the felt safari hat has a more versatile shape that can be worn more often, while the slouch hat and the pith helmet have very distinct looks.
  • For vintage lovers, a pith helmet will absolutely add a historical touch to your classic summer outfits.

Pith Helmet of Harry S. Truman

Pith Helmet of Harry S. Truman

Safari Hat Characteristics & Buying Guide

The modern equivalent of the Pith Helmet can be seen on our television screens worn by an assortment of wildlife guides, tourists to African game parks, nature show hosts, and television adventurers. These days, the “Safari Hat” is just as likely to be interpreted as one of the traditional safari shapes as it is “any hat worn on safari,” which could mean any number of modern hat iterations. For our purposes, we will stick with the traditional shapes that encompass the term “Safari Hat” — the Pith Helmet, the felt safari hat and the slouch hat.

French Pith Helmet

French Pith Helmet

The Pith Helmet

The modern iteration of the Pith Helmet features these characteristics:

  1. Rounded, down-slanting brim
  2. Decorative chin strap that is typically stretched over the front brim
  3. Top “button”
  4. Side hole vents
  5. White, khaki or green color
  6. Made of cork or pith covered in cotton twill

The Village Hat Shop offers a range of Pith Helmets, and some of them are remarkably still hand-made in India out of real pith! They offer an Indian Pith Helmet version, a French Pith Helmet version, and a stiffened straw Pith Helmet version. The French variation has a shallower crown that reflects the French style worn in their colony in Vietnam.

Stiffened straw hats come in the shape of a Pith Helmet, and while they are not traditional, they are lighter and the loose straw weave offers nice ventilation.

Borsalino Safari Hat

Borsalino Safari Hat

The Felt Safari Hat

The characteristics of the felt safari hat have undergone many changes during its long evolution, however, the modern safari hat (as it is described and known today) has the following characteristics:

  1. Fedora shape
  2. Made of brushed felt
  3. Unlined inside
  4. Fabric sweatband
  5. Rounded, medium-wide brim
  6. Leather hat band
  7. Top crease
  8. Dents or pinch on either side extending to half the length of the hat
  9. Shades of khaki and green

Borsalino, a heritage Italian hat maker, makes a beautiful felt safari hat.

Akubra Slouch Hat

Akubra Slouch Hat

The Slouch Hat

This style of hat is most commonly associated with Australia, and it has become a national symbol. It is often called the Australian Slouch Hat by retailers. Originally constructed of fur felt, it was prized for its durability. Here’s what to look for:

  1. Felted fur construction
  2. Side clip to pin one side up, if desired
  3. Pleated hatband
  4. Khaki and green colors

Akubra is a famous family-owned Australian hat maker that has been producing the slouch hat since it became standard military issue at the turn of the century. They still offer real felted fur slouch hats today. Check out Akubra’s felted fur slouch hat here.

One Last Idea

If you’ve read this whole article and aren’t convinced there is a place in your wardrobe for a pith helmet, there is one other use to consider. For the sartorial collector, a pith helmet makes an excellent decoration and conversation starter for classic fashion lovers. The next time you see a road-weary pith helmet at a flea market, consider putting it on your wall!

What do you think about Safari hats? Would you wear one?

This article was written by Vikram Nanjappa & Sven Raphael Schneider

Safari Hat Primer
Article Name
Safari Hat Primer
A quick primer on the Safari Hat's history, how to wear a pith helmet & why it needs a spot in your closet if you live in hot summer climates.
Gentleman's Gazette
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12 replies
  1. Ulf Skei says:

    Yes I would certainly consider wearing one. Waiting now for my deerstalker from the UK. Saw they have nice pith helmets there too (hatsandcaps), so I will invest in one to have it ready for next summer.

  2. Tom Davison says:

    For medical reasons, I have to wear a hat outdoors, and I found that the Tilley range provided a great variety of casual hats for all seasons. I have no connection with Tilley, other than owning 9 of their hats.

  3. John Wabash says:

    You seem to have missed the main, if not whole, point of the pith helmet – that it could be soaked and the pith or cork would retain the water for coolness.
    Your Australian readers can no doubt explain better than I can that the slouch hat pinned up to allow for a rifle to be shouldered.

  4. Steve Bower says:

    I’m sorry, but there are absolutely NO circumstances in which wearing a pith helmet will make you look other than a complete bellend.

  5. Suben says:

    I have long been a fan of the Fedora hats and would have no problem wearing the felt version of the safari hat. However as I hail from South Africa it is difficult to get your hands on a Fedora. I would welcome suggestions on how to obtain these hats.

  6. Terry says:

    A very interesting history of a unique piece of headwear. However, wouldn’t a felt hat be quite warm in the sun?

  7. Bill Dickman says:

    I have worn a pith hat occasionally each summer for years in New Orleans, now in Atlanta. Mine is a Bombay Bowler, made in India, #786. It is of the military style (oblong, no top button), light kacki outer cloth, moss green inner. Always get compliments usually from men who don’t have the balls to wear one ( at least they are honest enough to admit that). I find you have to have a confident personality to where most hats(not caps) these days because it’s certainly not the norm. What a way to express your independence without opening your mouth (what usually shows my ignorance). Thanks for your great work to educate Gentlemen around the world!

  8. Marc S. Duardo says:

    As one who, on appropriate occasions, wears a “Victorian style” pith helmet (like the one in T.R.’s pic), I found this article to be encouraging. Yes, one has to wear it with a bit of cheekiness but the man wears the hat; the hat does not wear the man. I do wear it with “safari” like clothing while camping or visiting a zoo and have received compliments. However, after a day at the Los Angeles zoo I cross the river to Golden Road brewery (mostly an outdoor venue) where I switch to a Panama hat. Even though this is L.A. I would still look like a special kind of douche. I hope this article encourages others to “safari” into new sartorial regions. I also appreciate that this site covers “all the bases”! I look forward to an article on pocket watch fobs.

  9. Simon says:

    Another interesting article.

    I can’t imagine wearing one of these anywhere other than the jungle. It would look pretty silly in the city…

  10. Peter Suciu says:

    Good basic information, but a bit too general. Also, some of this isn’t technically correct. Military and civilian helmets were at times very similar.

    Peter Suciu

      • Peter Suciu says:

        One point I would like to address is that while the generic name may be “pith helmet,” the vast majority of British military sun helmets of the 19th century were NOT made of pith, but rather the bodies were made of cork.
        I address this on my site:

        Armies from many nations including Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, The United States, Mexico, Argentina, Japan, China, Greece, Germany and countless others used sun helmets at some point.

        There helmets had their origins in India, but by the 20th century were widely used by military and civilian alike. During World War I many European sun helmets were made of straw due to cork shortages, and in World War II felt was used as a substitute material as well.

        The Vietnamese Army sun helmets of the 1960s were actually made of a waterproof cardboard, which wasn’t all that different from the pressed fiber helmets used by the United States during World War II.

        The story of the pith/sun helmet is a fascinating one, and it is one that my colleague Stuart Bates continues to share.

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