Guide to Brogues and Wingtips

Brogues & Wingtip Shoes Guide for Men

In the recent past, we introduced you to some iconic and popular footwear options such as the  Jodhpur, Chelsea, and Chukka boots. However, regarding shoes, we have only focused on boat shoes and thus today we are going to describe an extremely popular but often little-understood shoe – the Brogue.

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The Definition of Brogue

The term brogue also refers to an Irish accent and is generally used to describe certain other regional accents from the United Kingdom, namely from Scotland and the English West Country. However, this is clearly not what we are talking about but interestingly this term is supposed to have its origins from the perception that the Irish spoke as if they had ‘a shoe in their mouths’. The Irish word brog means ‘a rough or stout shoe’. Apparently, brog or brogue was also used to denote shoes.


To correctly understand what a Brogue is, one must comprehend the meaning of broguing.  The Merriam–Webster dictionary describes broguing (brogue: ing – noun) as an ornamentation of shoes employing heavy perforations and pinking. Therefore, it stands to reason that a shoe, any shoe, with perforations is a brogue – no matter if it is a Derby like the Budapester or Oxford shoe.

Maftei Full Brogue Oxford in tan with steel tips sideview

Maftei Full Brogue Oxford in tan with steel tips side view by Claymoorslist

Oxford or Derby

Many people confuse the term Oxford with Brogue. Of course, we use the term Oxford in the traditional sense, which is characterized by its lacing system or to be specific: by the shoelace eyelets that are attached under the vamp. This is also called ‘closed lacing.’

On the other hand, a Derby has ‘open lacing’ where the eyelets are attached to the top of the vamp.

Alfonso full brogue ankle boot in green nubuk leather by Scarosso

Derby Alfonso full brogue ankle boot in green nubuck leather by Scarosso

A detailed description of Oxford and Derby shoe is beyond the scope of this article, however, suffice to say that while initially Oxfords were plain formal shoes, they subsequently evolved into a range of styles both formal and casual. Some of these styles feature broguing or perforations along the edges of the individual leather pieces and thus can be called Brogues.

To sum it up: Oxfords are not always Brogues though they sometimes are and Brogues are not always Oxfords though some of them can be. It is the lacing system and the absence or presence of broguing that is the differentiating feature.

Wholecut with side gussets by George Cleverly with punched broguing

Wholecut with side gussets by George Cleverly with punched broguing

Origins of Brogues

The Brogue was originally designed in Scotland and Ireland as a shoe suitable for wearing while working outdoors. The Irish and Scottish countryside is wet and characterized by bogs that made life very difficult for the people who worked there and, as was expected, their feet took a beating. The need of the hour was a pair of shoes that were suitable for this type of work and terrain. The original Brogues were rudimentary shoes made with untanned animal hide; their distinctive feature was a series of perforations and serrations (broguing) of each piece of leather that was used in their construction. The purpose of these perforations was to allow water to drain from the shoes. Another feature of their design was that they were laced by leather tangs and did not have the tongue as in other shoes; they also had high lacing that wrapped above the ankles. This design feature kept the laces free from muck and dirt and prevented the shoes from being sucked off while walking in the mud. This basic design is now known as the ‘ghillie brogue’ and is often considered the standard style for traditional Scottish dress footwear.

Brogue Characteristics & Styles

Listing the characteristics of the Brogue is a daunting task as it is a very versatile shoe and comes in various shapes. However, for the sake of convenience, the basic characteristics  you will find in most brogues are as follows  (not all brogues may have all these basic characteristics):

  1. Low heels
  2. Presence of toe caps.
  3. The presence of heel caps.
  4. The presence of lace panels.
  5. The presence of Broguing or (now) decorative perforations.

Various designs have evolved over time, and so subcategories of brogues were created.

Full brogue by Grenson

Full Brogue by Grenson

1. Full brogues or Wingtips – these have a pointed toe cap with extensions called wingtip that extends along both sides of the shoe and usually ends near the ball of the foot. When seen from above the cap is shaped like a ‘W’ or ‘M’ depending on the viewpoint. It features broguing along its edges as well as decorative broguing in the center of the toe cap, which is called Medallion. There are a few variations to this style. 

  • Wingtip toe cap with broguing only on the edges and without Medallion are called blind brogues.
  • Spectator shoes are full brogues or wingtips in two contrasting colors. Usually, the toe and heel caps and sometimes the lace panels are in a darker color than the main body of the shoe. Typically the main body of the shoe is made of white or off white leather or canvas fabric, but lately, all kinds of materials, colors, and textures have been utilized including tweed.
  • Longwing brogues differ from full brogues or wingtips in that the wings extend along the full length of the shoe and meet at a center seam at the heel. Sometimes they are referred to as ‘English brogues’ in the US and as ‘American brogues’ in the UK. Most of the time longwing brogues are made as a derby, but Oxford longwing brogues exist.
  • Wingtip toe cap without any broguing (either along the edge of the toe cap or in its center) is called an austerity brogue even though technically it cannot be called a brogue due to the complete absence of any broguing.

2. Semi or Half brogues – these have a toe cap without extensions or wings and feature broguing both along the cap’s edge and sides and have a medallion. This style was first designed by the famous London shoemakers John Lobb Ltd in 1937. Today, you will find many variations of the semi brogue, including V cap, cap without medallion, and a second, recessed piece of brogued leather behind the cap.

Crockett & Jones Belgrave half quarter brogue

Crockett & Jones Belgrave half quarter brogue

3. Quarter brogues – like the semi or half brogues these have toe caps without points and extensions or wings. However, they differ from the semi or half brogues in that they have broguing only along the caps edge and not anywhere else and feature no medallion.

Ghillie Brogue in brown by Crockett & Jones

Ghillie Brogue in brown by Crockett & Jones

4. Ghillie brogues – the standard style for traditional formal Scottish dress footwear  (including evening dress in black) is a Full brogue or wingtip but differs from them in that they do not have a tongue and have long laces that that wrap around the legs above the ankle and are tied below the calf.

5. Modern variations – of course you will find all kinds of modifications of these classic styles. One of the more popular variations is the U-cap or U-tip which is a an adaptation of a full brogue.

Brogues also feature a variety of closure styles or lacing systems, however, these are not defining characteristics of a brogue except in the case of the Ghillie brogue. Some of the common closure styles available are laced Oxfords (closed lacing system) , Derby (open lacing system), Monk straps (both double and single), slip on system (with or without elastic), loafers, and even boots (with or without laces).

Brogue Style Advice

Brogues were originally designed for outdoor wear and were worn by the working class predominantly in Scotland and Ireland. Slowly over time they were used by country gentlemen as an outdoor country walking shoe. It is because of these very roots that they were not considered appropriate wear for other social or business occasions during that time. However, things changed in the twentieth century when the brogue was used as a template for fashionable women’s footwear. The perforations or broguing were now used solely for decorative purposes. Famous celebrity women such as the actresses Marlene Dietrich and Katherine Hepburn incorporated it into their signature style of daring masculine fashion choices. The model Twiggy also favoured the shoe, reportedly made by George Cleverly after she challenged him to design her pair of flat shoes. All this led to a rise in its popularity. Due to this influence, perceptions began to change and slowly the brogue began to be considered appropriate wear, even for men for most occasions both social and business.

Twiggy in George Cleverly spectator full brogues

Twiggy in George Cleverly spectator full brogues

By the 1920’s, brogues were extremely popular with men, especially in the United States but also in England and continental Europe the brogue was now an integral part of one’s show wardrobe. Famous men like Fred Astaire, Gary Cooper, or Cary Grant all brogue shoes regularly.

How to Wear Brogues

Even today, a full brogue would formally not be considered the proper shoe to wear with a three-piece pin-stripe suit, whereas a quarter brogue in black or oxblood is a perfect business shoe.

  1. As a rule of thumb, always bear in mind that a shoe is less formal the more broguing it has and vice versa. As such, full brogues are perfect when combined with anything related to country attire, and semi brogues in a darker brown color are very versatile and can be worn with tweed as well as casual worsted sports coats and brown suits.
  2. Even though Prince William committed this faux pas, brogues are never appropriate for Black Tie or white tie events, unless you wear black ghillie brogues the Scottish Highland dress, and I’d also shy away to wear them with dark three-piece business suits.
  3. When worn as a dress shoe with a suit, it is better to opt for either half brogues or quarter brogues as they are not too elaborate and maintain the formality of the outfit. A full brogue is mostly too casual for a worsted suit but will work with tweed or other country fabrics.
  4. On other semi–formal occasions where a suit is not required and where a blazer or a sports coat will suffice the wingtip or muted spectator makes for an ideal choice. It maintains just the right amount of formality and casualness.
  5. In a casual setting , he brogue can be paired with jeans, chinos, and most other casual trousers.
  6. Brogues come in a variety of colors with the classic colors being brown and black. Of course, there are endless shades of brown but personally I also like oxblood very much and even navy or dark green will work well as brogues. And these are the safe choices when it comes to wearing them for formal occasions. Spectator shoes are not everybody’s cup of tea and can be difficult to pull off. I like to pair my brown white spectators with light colored or brown trousers while others prefer to wear them on the golf course only. If you have confidence in your style you can wear them anywhere you want – except for formal occasions of course. The basic rules for matching shoes colors with the rest of your outfit apply here as well.
  7. While most brogues are made of boxcalf leather, they are available in suede, scotch grain, and all kinds of other leathers. Ideally you should opt for smooth or at least uniform leathers to make the broguing shine. For example ostrich brogues or stingray are so dominant that a brogue shoe would look simply horrid.
  8. Most brogues you see will be the traditional kind of regular or symmetrical hole perforations. However, in recent years I have also seen more creative broguing such as shotgun or buck shot brogues that look a bit like somebody fired a shotgun onto the leather. So, if you are more inclined to go fashion forward this could be an interesting way to combine the classic look.
  9. While I have seen some men wear brogues with shorts, I have to confess that I am not a fan of this look at all. For me brogues work especially well with Blazers, Hacking Jackets, sports coats, casual suits in lighter colors and tweed or even a Harrington jacket.
  10. Every man should have at least one pair of brogue shoes and once you increase the number of shoes in your collection, probably half of your shoes or more will have some sort of broguing. If versatility is your goal, the oxblood semi brogue is probably the way to go but a chestnut brown will also work with many outfits. Of course, if you work at a bank, law firm, or a similar white collar job, go with black quarter brogues. If you are kind of in between, suede full or half brogue in various shades of brown are appropriate. For country boots, I like tan but I also half full brogue  boots in oxblood cordovan.

Buying Brogues

It would be impossible to list all manufacturers of brogues and even if I would narrow it down to 50 or 100 companies that produce quality footwear, it would still be difficult. In the future, we will publish another guide on how to purchase quality footwear in general, which will also apply to brogues. With this general guide on brogues, you should be able to find brogue footwear that fits your style and suits your needs.

What are your favorite brogues and why?

This guide was created by Sven Raphael Schneider & Vikram Nanjappa.

Brogues Shoe & Wingtip Guide for Men
Article Name
Brogues Shoe & Wingtip Guide for Men
Learn all about Brogues & Wingtips, what styles are available, the history behind them, the different leathers & styles like Full Brogue, Ghillie...
Gentleman's Gazette
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43 replies
  1. Anthony Power says:

    Enjoyed the article. You mention the Irish working origin of the Brogue but were you aware that Brog is actually the Irish for shoe.

  2. mark hamer says:

    Being an outdoors, tweed and corduroy wearing sort of chap I live in oxblood full brogues.

    A chap should never wear black shoes at any event that is not black tie or a funeral.

    • Alexander Cave says:

      What a curious notion – I wonder how you have can have arrived at it.

      Black brogues are no different in their casuality or formality from any other style of black shoe, and may be worn freely on all occasions that allow – even full-dress evening functions. It is the choice of leather and shine that makes the crucial difference, and where misunderstanding arises, and so the usual conventions apply.

      Myself, I always wear black brogues with evening dress, as I wear Highland dress – no other kind of shoe is suitable with the kilt. It is the shine of the shoe that is the key. The same is true for Highland dress at highly formal white tie events, where the swash of the full rigoot makes the sharpest cut tails and stiffest shirt front seem somehow lack-lustre.

      As for black-tie evenings, trews (closely cut tartan trousers) with a dinner-jacket is a charming alternative, which requires brogues – but, again, a proper shine is desired.

      • Sven Raphael Schneider says:

        Alexander, I wasn’t referring to Highland dress, but I would be curious to learn who else shares your opinion about brogues for eveningwear.
        Now, I should also add the Sri Lankan, Nigerian, Peruvian… evening traditions.
        What I meant – and hence the link to Prince William – a dinner jacket / tuxedo, tailcoat or morning coat are not worn with brogues because it would be incorrect according to every piece of evidence I have seen, including the English Tailor & Cutter, Continental European Monsieur, Arbiter, Der Herr, Herrenjournal… and every book on the matter. which were all among the earliest men’s clothing and etiquette magazines and resources. According to whom would it be correct to wear black brogues with a tailcoat or tuxedo? Also, can you provide some sources for the choice of leather and shine rule? I’d love to dig deeper.

        By the way, you never responded to our comments in the Scotch Guide…

        • Alexander Cave says:

          I was responding to Mark Hamer’s suggestion that black shoes should never be worn other than for black-tie occasions or funerals. I would be interested to hear how he has come to this view. The mention of Highland dress as evening wear was to answer Boris Zimmerman’s question – he need not feel that it is the sole privilege of Scots, despite the foolish nonsense talked about the ‘right’. All other cultural dress traditions are of course governed by their own conventions.

          Brogues themselves are no different from other styles of shoe, whether black or brown, and the usual conventions of wearing therefore naturally apply. My point was that their origin and tradition (long forgotten or conveniently over-looked by non-Highlanders – they are purely Scottish, not Irish in origin, as Irish footwear traditions are well documented and the bare leg was the style until much more recently – even among what you might call the ruling classes and even adopted by the English ‘plantation’ emigrants. The other Scottish Highland shoe is the cuaran which often incorporated the animal’s fur as part of the style) allows the brogue certain privileges that their otherwise equals do not enjoy – such as being de regle as evening wear at certain times.

          The Highland style ghillie brogue is open-throated (no tongue) and laces low across the foot and up around the ankle. These are quite right as day-wear, and have become acceptable with black-tie. The silver buckled variety is more suitable for evenings as they can be very grand and flashy.

          As for the leather surface, the Scotch grain is commonly seen in a variety of finishes from a dull sheen to a brilliant shine. I own a number that I wear according to need, from my officer-issue heavy brogues with highly textured grain, to the smooth surfaced ones, to which I have given a patent-like shine and which receive earnest enquiries as to the supplier.

          I must challenge you on your point that brogues are not appropriate with a three-piece suite – of course they are! Always have been. There is even a well-known, long-established gentleman’s club in London whose members from the highest levels of society are reputed to display their membership by wearing black brogues.

          As for following the princes’ lead in sartorial style, my views given previously apply no less strongly..! Royal princes are well known throughout the ages for falling short of the desired standard, but aping them does not make one princely or regal. You are to be encouraged, Raphael, in advising against using them as a style to emulate!

          • Sven Raphael Schneider says:

            Great comment, as almost always from you Alexander. If you are scottish, I would think it is fine to wear the ghillie brogues with highland dress but with a tuxedo I would never suggest to anybody to wear it.
            I did’t say three piece suit in general but classic ones in dark colors, and I only said full brogues, not brogues in general. I have worn full brogues with a brown three piece suit, but for pin stripe I find them too informal just like they are too informal for evening wear. Referencing a smart club is not really a good example for the general public because club often break conventional rules to demonstrate membership, just like here. It seems like they chose to wear black brogues with three piece suits because hardly anyone else would. If all men would wear full black brogues with their three piece suits. A quarter brogue on the other hand would be perfect.
            I just pulled up a Guide Concerning Correctness in Dress from 1932. For town ad business wear, plain or perforated (brogued) toe caps are sugessted and only sports and country shoes may have brogued wingtips. A german guide from 10 years before says the same as well as the Tailor & Cutter.

            • Alexander Cave says:

              I think you have misunderstood me.

              The ghillie brogue is extremely limited in its opportunities for wear, being virtually restricted to the kilt only, and my mention of them in relation to black-tie was for Highland black-tie dress – I cannot conceive of another situation they could be at all suitble. For trousers, formal or otherwise, other styles of brogue offer a wide choice.

              It is to be remembered that the three-piece suit is an informal garment, but recent decades of growing casual dressing has promoted it above its original station. The three-piece suit started out as a relaxed and informal change from morning clothes, and for a long time such suits were widely known as ‘afternoon’ clothes, in which to ‘lounge’. The dramatic change in fashion and formality which followed the first world war will of course be reflected in the advice the sources you mention from this inter-war era.

              I cannot comment on German dress conventions, or those adopted in North America in the 20th century, but it remains that the full brogue, along with its less ornamental kin, will always be perfectly correct with a three-piece suit of whatever material or colour. The crucial factor is the leather finish, which applies to all footwear for the same reasons.

      • Robert MacDonald says:

        “No other shoe is suitable with the kilt”?
        Buckled-shoes (which are NOT brogues) are the standard for Evening-wear with the kilt, and George boots are the ‘standard’ for wear with trews.
        Brogues are day-wear. When I see someone wearing brogues with evening-wear I sigh, find a seat where I will not have to watch his table-manners, and resign myself to counting the silverware after the oik leaves……it’s the equivalent of wearing a belt under the waistcoat, or black tie with white waistcoat.

        And Ghillie-brogues are a Victorian aberration.

  3. Boris Zimmermann says:

    I like brogues. I like to wear them during the day or in the afternoon. But I coudn’t think of a way to wear them in the evening. Do you think of outfits where brogues would be appropriate in the evening? Are there any?

  4. peter says:

    From my time in NYC in the mid 60s I recall guys wearing their Florsheim long tip brogues with their poplin Brooks Brothers suits. To me they represented Ivy League at its best and I continue this style in summer. In winter they look great with grey flannel pants, herringbone tweeds & blazers. Amonst the best are cordovan . They are a fashion statement and are, in my view, mostly worn now in Europe by well-heeled folk. The spectator type are also known by the term corespondent.. Guess the reason….

  5. Gernot_Freiherr_von_Donnerbalken says:

    I want to express my thanks for this well researched and insightful article. It is always a pleasure to be informed by this fine gazette.
    Personally I only own one pair of suede full brogues, but they are a real asset to my wardrobe. I would feel tempted to add the Crocket & Jones ghilie brogues shown in this article, though.

  6. Richard says:

    I absolutely love the my boots, similar to the Dalton Boot, in cordovan and black sporting a brogue toe cap. Their outstanding stylish look coupled with functionality allows me to go from the office and business meeting to the stables. They permit me to combine them with just about any wool tweed for winter or linen suit for summer and blue jeans for weekend horse shows. An added and often overlooked benefit of these boots are the added support and keeping your ankles dry in these unforgiving winters of northeastern united States.

  7. Alex H says:

    I enjoyed the article on Brogues. I noticed that the laces on some of the pictures of the shoes aren’t done in the “criss-cross” style, but are straight across the vamp. Is this how the laces should be tied or is this a matter of personal taste?

  8. Daniel says:

    Thank you for some very informative articles. I am going for a slightly retro country style. I have invested in a Nice green Harris tweed sports jacket, and started to use it almost every Day. During winter I am usling it together with Brown double stitched hiking boots. But Wat do in springtime? The shoes need to be hardwearing – I walk the dog every day. I also need to be able to combine Them with jeans, as I can not afford to shift my Whole wardrobe at once. suggestions to which type of shoes I should go for are most velcome.

  9. Lorenzo says:

    Dear Mr. Schneider,

    I enjoyed the article, but I have a doubt about using brogue shoes in spring or summer.
    I can’t remember where I had read that the brogue shoe is suitable only for cold weather.
    Is that correct?
    Thank you so much

  10. Simon says:

    Mark wrote “A chap should never wear black shoes at any event that is not black tie or a funeral. ”

    A chap should not make silly, sweeping statements like this. Where do you get this tripe?

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